If the body does not produce enough human growth hormone (HGH), a person may need to have growth hormone injections. Side effects of HGH injections include headaches, joint discomfort, and muscle aches.

Several glands in the body produce hormones, but health experts consider the pituitary to be the master control gland. Not only does it control other glands, but it also makes the hormone that triggers growth.

The pituitary gland is in the brain below the hypothalamus. It secretes hormones in response to chemical messages from the hypothalamus.

The human growth hormone (HGH) helps to influence height, as well as build bones and muscles in the body. It is crucial for processes involved in normal human growth and development.

Genetic factors can lead to a lack of growth hormone in children. Damage to the pituitary gland is a common cause of a deficiency in adults.

In this article, we look at the reasons to use HGH, the function of growth hormones, and possible side effects.

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HGH is essential to growth, especially in children, but it is also involved in many other processes in the body, including bone density, muscle mass, and mood.

Different hormones control various body functions and processes, including growth and development, metabolism, sexual function and reproduction, and mood.

It helps process protein and increases fat breakdown to help provide the energy needed for tissue growth.

Growth hormone levels can change through the day, and physical activity plays a part.

Exercise and similar activities can cause the levels to rise naturally. Sleep, stress, and low blood sugar levels also increase growth hormone levels.

Even small changes in HGH levels affect the body.

Too little or too much growth hormone can cause significant growth problems. Too little HGH is one of the main causes of short stature and conditions such as dwarfism.

Some people use HGH because they believe it will build muscle, improve performance, or slow aging. However, the existing evidence does not support the use of HGH for these purposes.

Children with low levels of lack of growth hormone may or may not be smaller at birth. Growth problems may appear in time, for example, if they are smaller than their classmates and growing less than 2 inches a year.

Some children are unable to produce growth hormone when they are born and continue to have low levels throughout their life.

Symptoms of growth hormone deficiency in children are:

  • looking much younger than other children their age
  • having a chubby body build
  • impaired hair growth
  • delayed puberty
  • short stature

In some children, a lack of growth hormone is part of a genetic condition, but sometimes the cause of the deficiency is unknown.

In adults, a lack of growth hormone is often due to damage to the pituitary gland, which may be permanent. The damage could have occurred in childhood or adulthood.

Other causes include:

Problems in the pituitary with producing growth hormone are commonly due to a pituitary tumor.

The pituitary can be damaged by the tumor itself or by treatment such as surgery and radiotherapy.

In adults, a lack of HGH can cause a number of different problems including:

Growth hormone deficiency can also be a combination of one or more hormone deficiencies.

Some medical conditions may also benefit HGH treatment.

These include:

  • Turner’s syndrome: Women with this condition generally have underdeveloped female sexual characteristics.
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder causes weak muscle tone, feeding difficulties, poor growth, and delayed development.
  • Noonan syndrome: This genetic disorder interferes with the proper development of various part of the body.
  • Chronic kidney disease in children: HGH is not a treatment option for adults with CKD.

The most common treatment in both adults and children is growth hormone therapy using lab-developed HGH injections.

Doses occur several times per week or on a daily basis depending on how severe the deficiency is.Manufacturers designed the growth hormone to mimic the behavior of natural growth hormone in the body. It will be prescribed by a doctor.

HGH treatments can be self-administered or given by a doctor. Treatments are often given for several years. Patients will see their doctor every month or so to check their condition.

Blood tests will be carried out to see if extra growth hormone is needed and if treatments should be increased, decreased, or stopped. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and bone density will also be checked to see if they are healthy.

Taking growth hormone can affect the body’s response to insulin, which controls blood sugar levels. Growth hormone deficiency can also lead to high cholesterol and brittle bones if it is not treated.

Specific treatment for growth hormone deficiency depends on the person.

Doctors base this treatment on certain factors, such as:

  • age
  • overall health and medical history
  • extent of the condition
  • tolerance for specific treatment
  • treatment expectations
  • patient’s choice

The earlier the lack of growth hormone is treated in children, the better chance they have to grow to a near normal adult height.

Children can gain as many as 4 inches or more over the first 3 years of treatment. Another 3 inches or more can grow during the next 2 years.

Many adults have to take HGH treatment for the remainder of their life.

Anyone taking HGH will undergo regular monitoring to assess the safety and effectiveness of the hormone.

The goal of growth hormone treatments in adults and children is to restore energy, metabolism, and enhance body development or shape. It can help to reduce total body fat, especially around the belly.

HGH injections can also help to improve bone density and muscle mass, increase capacity for exercise, and reduce the risk of heart disease in those who lack growth hormone.

Many people experience an increase in overall quality of life.

Most people tolerate HGH injection treatments well with few problems.

However, possible side effects include:

  • muscle aches
  • joint discomfort
  • headaches
  • swelling of the hands and feet

Those who experience these symptoms or other problems should talk to their doctor. They can change the dose if necessary to help remedy the symptoms.

HGH injections are not recommended for people who have:

  • tumors
  • cancer
  • serious illness
  • severe breathing problems
  • multiple injuries
  • complications from open heart or abdominal surgery

HGH can affect insulin usage in the body, so people with diabetes should monitor their blood sugar levels carefully.

Other treatments may be required depending on the cause of the HGH deficiency.

Surgery or radiation may be necessary to treat a tumor in the pituitary. Pituitary hormones may also have to be taken to correct a gland that is not working properly.

Too much human growth hormone

If the levels of HGH are too high in adults, they may experience:

Long-term use of HGH injections can cause a condition called acromegaly.

Adults cannot grow taller by using the synthetic growth hormone. High doses will thicken the person’s bones instead of lengthening them.

People with acromegaly will experience an overgrowth of bones, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The skin area can also be affected and may turn thick, coarse, and hairy. The excess HGH levels can also lead to high blood pressure and heart disease.

HGH injections have also become popular for nonmedical usage. Bodybuildersgro and athletes sometimes use them in an effort to get larger muscles, more energy, and increased stamina.

They are considered performance-enhancing drugs and are banned in professional sports.

HGH injections are also advertised as an anti-aging or weight loss treatment.

Many people aim to help increase their energy as well as fight the decrease in muscle and bone mass that happens with aging.

The Endocrine Society do not recommend HGH injections for adults or children unless they have a growth hormone deficiency.

Not enough evidence is available to prove that HGH injections can slow down the aging process, and studies show it does not improve athletic performance. Adverse effects often occur, especially fluid retention.

Using them for any nonmedical reason is illegal in the United States.

HGH injections are designed for adults or children who have a lack of growth hormone and should only be prescribed by a doctor.

Children and adults with low levels of growth hormone should ensure they have plenty of sleep, a balanced diet, regular exercise, and that they follow medical advice.


People seem interested in using HGH to have a more athletic body, to perform better in sports and to prevent aging. Is this a good idea?


HGH is a potent drug that can cause significant side effects. A person therefore needs to weigh up the benefits and risks. Do the potential benefits outweigh the risks?

For those without HGH deficiency, the answer is no. Very few data support the idea that HGH helps people with normal levels.

It may improve lean body mass in athletes and older adults but does not seem to improve strength or performance.

It also does not improve risk factors for chronic diseases, such as diabetes or heart disease. No reliable evidence confirms that it can prevent aging.

Karen Gill, MDAnswers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.
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