Eating plenty of vegetables may be one of the simplest ways to improve health and well-being.
All vegetables contain healthful vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber — but some stand out for their exceptional benefits.
Specific vegetables may offer more health advantages to certain people, depending on their diets, overall health, and nutritional needs.
In this article, we look at 15 of the most healthful vegetables and suggest ways to enjoy them as part of a balanced diet.
Due to its iron and calcium content, spinach is a great addition to any meat- or dairy-free diet.
One cup of raw spinach is mostly made up of water and contains only
- an adult’s full
daily requirementof vitamin K
- high amounts of vitamin A
- vitamin C
Vitamin K is essential for a healthy body — especially for strong bones, as it improves the absorption of calcium.
Spinach also provides a good amount of iron for energy and healthy blood, and a high level of magnesium for muscle and nerve function.
If a person is taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. Doctors recommend maintaining a consistent vitamin K intake over time for people taking these medications.
How to eat spinach
People enjoy spinach raw in salads, sandwiches, and smoothies. Cooked spinach also has significant health benefits and is a great addition to pasta dishes and soups.
Kale may benefit people with high cholesterol. One small 2008 study reports that males with high cholesterol who drank 150 milliliters of kale juice each day for 12 weeks experienced a 10% reduction in low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol and a 27% increase in high-density lipoprotein, or “good,” cholesterol.
If a person is taking blood thinners, such as Coumadin, they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. It is best to maintain a consistent vitamin K intake while taking these medications.
How to eat kale
People use baby kale in pasta dishes, salads, and sandwiches. A person may also enjoy kale chips or juice.
Broccoli is an incredibly healthful vegetable that belongs to the same family as cabbage, kale, and cauliflower. These are all cruciferous vegetables.
Each cup of chopped and boiled broccoli contains:
- the full daily requirement of vitamin K
- twice the daily recommended amount of vitamin C
According to the National Cancer Institute, animal research has found that certain chemicals, called indoles and isothiocyanates, in cruciferous vegetables may inhibit the development of cancer in several organs, including the bladder, breasts, liver, and stomach.
These compounds may protect cells from DNA damage, inactivate cancer-causing agents, and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, research in humans has been mixed.
How to eat broccoli
Broccoli is very versatile. People can roast it, steam it, fry it, blend it into soups, or enjoy it warm in salads.
Peas are a sweet, starchy vegetable. They contain
- fiber, providing 9 grams (g) per serving
- protein, providing 9 g per serving
- vitamins A, C, and K
- certain B vitamins
Green peas are a good source of plant-based protein, which may be especially beneficial for people with vegetarian or vegan diets.
Peas and other legumes contain fiber, which supports good bacteria in the gut and helps ensure regular bowel movements and a healthy digestive tract.
They are also rich in saponins, plant compounds that may help
How to eat peas
It might be handy to keep a bag of peas in the freezer and gradually use them to boost the nutritional profiles of pasta dishes, risottos, and curries. A person might also enjoy a refreshing pea and mint soup.
Each sweet potato also contains:
- much more than an adult’s daily requirement of vitamin A
- 25% of their vitamin C and B6 requirements
- 12% of their potassium requirement
- beta carotene, which may improve eye health and help fight cancer
How to eat sweet potatoes
For a simple meal, bake a sweet potato in its skin and serve it with a source of protein, such as fish or tofu.
One cup of raw beets contains:
- 442 milligrams (mg) of potassium
- 148 micrograms of folate
Beets and beet juice are great for improving heart health, as the vegetable is rich in heart-healthy nitrates. A small
These vegetables may also benefit people with diabetes. Beets contain an antioxidant called alpha-lipoic acid, which might
How to eat beets
Roasting beets brings out their natural sweetness, but they also taste great raw in juices, salads, and sandwiches.
Vitamin A is vital for healthy eyesight, and getting enough of this nutrient may help prevent vision loss.
Certain nutrients in carrots may also have cancer-fighting properties. A
How to eat carrots
Carrots are extremely versatile. They work well in casseroles and soups, and they provide great health benefits when eaten raw, possibly with a dip such as hummus.
Fermented vegetables provide all the nutrients of their unfermented counterparts as well as healthful doses of probiotics.
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are present in the body and in some foods and supplements. Some researchers believe that they can improve gut health.
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, probiotics may help with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. They may also prevent infection- or antibiotic-induced diarrhea.
Some good vegetables for fermentation include:
- cabbage, as sauerkraut
- cucumbers, as pickles
How to eat fermented vegetables
People eat fermented vegetables in salads, sandwiches, or as a side dish.
Although tomatoes are technically a fruit, most people treat them like vegetables and use them in savory dishes. Each cup of chopped, raw tomatoes contains:
- 427 mg of potassium
- 24.7 mg of vitamin C
Meanwhile, other potent antioxidants in tomatoes, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may protect vision.
How to eat tomatoes
People enjoy tomatoes raw or cooked, and cooking them releases more lycopene.
People have long used garlic in cooking and medicine. Each garlic clove contains just
Allium, a component of garlic, may be the source of its health benefits. Confirming this will require more research.
How to eat garlic
Heating garlic reduces its health benefits, so it is best to eat garlic raw, in bruschetta or dips, for example.
- 64 calories
- vitamin C
- vitamin B6
Onions and other allium vegetables, including garlic, contain sulfur compounds. Review studies, including a
How to eat onions
It can be easy to incorporate onions into soups, stews, stir-fries, and curries. To get the most from their antioxidants, eat them raw — in sandwiches, salads, and dips such as guacamole.
Each cup of alfalfa sprouts contains only
These sprouts also boast several compounds that contribute to good health, including:
- saponins, a type of bitter compound with health benefits
- flavonoids, a type of polyphenol known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects
- phytoestrogens, plant compounds that are similar to natural estrogens
Traditionally, some have used alfalfa sprouts to treat a range of health conditions, such as arthritis and kidney problems. However, very few scientific investigations have explored these uses.
Research suggests that alfalfa sprouts contain antioxidants, which are compounds that may help fight diseases including cancer and heart disease.
Eating sprouted legumes such as these may have other benefits.
How to eat alfalfa sprouts
People enjoy alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches.
Sweet bell peppers may be red, yellow, or orange. Unripe, green bell peppers are also popular, though they taste less sweet.
A cup of chopped red bell pepper provides:
- 190 mg of vitamin C
- 0.434 mg of vitamin B6
- beta carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A
Antioxidants and bioactive chemicals present in bell peppers
- ascorbic acid
- vitamin C
- beta carotene
- flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol
How to eat bell peppers
Bell peppers are extremely versatile and can be easy to incorporate into pasta, scrambled eggs, or a salad. A person might also enjoy them sliced with a side of guacamole or hummus.
One cup of chopped cauliflower contains:
- plenty of vitamin C
- vitamin K
The American Heart Association recommend eating 25 g of dietary fiber each day to promote heart and gut health.
Also, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables contain an antioxidant called indole-3-carbinol. Research has linked this compound with cancer-combatting effects in animals. However, confirming the effects in humans requires more research.
And like broccoli, cauliflower contains another compound that may help combat cancer: sulforaphane.
How to eat cauliflower
A person can pulse raw cauliflower in a blender to make cauliflower rice or turn it into a pizza base for a low-calorie, comforting treat. People may also enjoy cauliflower in curries or baked with olive oil and garlic.
Seaweed, also known as sea vegetables, are versatile and nutritious plants that provide several health benefits. Common types of seaweed include:
- sea lettuce
Seaweed is one of the few plant-based sources of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These are essential for health and are mostly present in meat and dairy.
Each type of seaweed has a slightly different nutritional profile, but they are typically rich in iodine, which is an essential nutrient for thyroid function.
Eating a variety of sea vegetables can provide the body with several important antioxidants to reduce cellular damage.
Also, many types of seaweed contain chlorophyll, which is a plant pigment that has
Brown sea vegetables, such as kelp and wakame, contain another potent antioxidant called fucoxanthin.
How to eat seaweed
When possible, choose organic seaweed and eat small amounts to avoid introducing too much iodine into the diet. People enjoy sea vegetables in sushi, miso soups, and as a seasoning for other dishes.
Eating vegetables every day is important for health. They provide essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, such as antioxidants and fiber.
Research consistently shows that people who eat at least 5 servings of vegetables a day have the lowest risk of many diseases, including cancer and heart disease.
Enjoy a range of vegetables daily to reap as many health benefits as possible.