Signs of HIV that affect males include penile ulcers, erectile dysfunction, proctitis, hypogonadism, and prostatitis. Other symptoms can also include a fever, sore throat, rashes, and more.
HIV is a virus that affects white blood cells known as CD4 cells, which play a major role in the body’s immunity. Since HIV attacks the body’s immunity, people with the condition are more likely to develop infections and other conditions.
As numerous conditions can cause the same signs and symptoms of HIV, it is important to determine the cause. A doctor can perform tests to diagnose HIV and rule out other possible conditions.
Read on to learn more about the signs and symptoms of HIV in males. This article also looks at other common symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and more.
A note about sex and gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms “male,” “female,” or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. Click here to learn more.
Most signs and symptoms of HIV are the same for anyone. However, some are unique to males.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help heal penile ulcers.
According to a
Symptoms of infectious proctitis include:
Treatment for infectious proctitis typically involves antimicrobial therapy.
Research from 2021 indicates that erectile dysfunction has a prevalence rate of anywhere from
Symptoms can include a lack of erection or a partial erection. Erectile dysfunction can also affect a person’s sex life and cause a loss of interest in sex.
A doctor may recommend medication for a person with erectile dysfunction. Talk therapy may also be beneficial.
Hypogonadism, or low testosterone levels, may occur in males with either treated or untreated HIV.
Common symptoms of hypogonadism include:
- reduced libido
- erectile dysfunction
- low mood
Testosterone replacement therapy can help treat hypogonadism.
HIV is a risk factor for acute prostatitis. The condition refers to swelling or inflammation of the prostate gland.
Symptoms of prostatitis include:
- pain during urination
- inability to urinate
- pain when passing stool
- pain during ejaculation
- pain in the bladder, penis, testicle, and groin area
- generally feeling unwell
Doctors typically prescribe antibiotics for prostatitis. In severe cases, a person may need to stay in the hospital.
Some common symptoms of HIV can occur in both males and females. They can include:
Doctors diagnose HIV with various blood tests. These
- Antibody test: Most HIV rapid test kits are antibody tests.Antibody tests can take 23–90 days to detect HIV after exposure.
- Antigen-antibody test: This looks for HIV antigens and antibodies in the blood. An antigen-antibody test can usually detect HIV 18–45 days after exposure.
- Nucleic acid test (NAT): The doctor will recommend a NAT for people who have had recent exposure. A NAT can usually detect HIV 10–33 days after exposure.
The main treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy (ART).
ART involves taking a combination of HIV medications known as HIV treatment regimen. While ART cannot cure HIV, it can help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives.
A person may be able to reduce their risk of HIV by:
- getting tested for HIV before having sex
- avoiding injecting drugs
- getting tested and treated for any sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as STIs can increase the risk of
- using condoms or other protection correctly during sex
- speaking with the doctor about postexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which can reduce the risk of HIV
Here are some common questions about HIV.
Are there early warning signs of HIV?
A person may initially experience flu-like symptoms. These can include fatigue, chills, night sweats, and a sore throat.
How long does it take for HIV to show up in males?
The first symptoms of HIV usually appear
It is best for a person to contact a doctor for advice if they believe they may have been exposed to HIV, even if they do not have any symptoms.
What are the 5 main symptoms of HIV?
The symptoms of HIV can be nonspecific. Not everybody with HIV will have the same symptoms. However, the main symptoms that do occur in the early stage can resemble the flu.
Signs of HIV in males can include proctitis, penile ulcers, prostatitis, hypogonadism, and erectile dysfunction.
Other symptoms of HIV can include a fever, muscle aches, sore throat, chills, and a rash. In some cases, a person may not experience any symptoms.
A doctor will typically use blood tests to test for and diagnose HIV. The main treatment for HIV is ART therapy. Doctors may also recommend treatments for specific symptoms.