Pepcid, also known as famotidine, is a drug approved for treating gastrointestinal conditions. Drug repurposing has suggested that it may play a beneficial role in improving COVID-19 symptoms.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious betacoronavirus that emerged in December 2019. The disease that SARS-CoV-2 causes, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulted in a global pandemic. According to the
Although many people with COVID-19 do not have any symptoms, some people develop serious symptoms that require treatment and hospitalization.
Researchers are trying to devise several treatment options to curb the pandemic. Pepcid, which has the generic name famotidine, is a competitive histamine H-receptor antagonist (H2RA) that can treat gastrointestinal conditions.
Recent studies indicate that famotidine
This article discusses what Pepcid is and how it may help with COVID-19 symptoms. It will also explore other treatment approaches and prevention strategies for COVID-19.
All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date. Visit our coronavirus hub for the most recent information on the COVID-19 pandemic.
Pepcid, which has the generic name famotidine, is an H2RA that is a
The manufacturer of Pepcid did not intend for it to be used in the treatment or prevention of COVID-19 and its symptoms. Research on Pepcid and COVID-19 involves famotidine, the generic name for Pepcid.
Famotidine may help relieve COVID-19 symptoms by acting on host pathways associated with the viral infection. It binds to the histamine H2 receptor that is present not only in the stomach but also in mast cells.
Dysregulation of mast cells occurs in severe COVID-19 that results in the release of proinflammatory proteins, leading to issues such as lung damage. Famotidine can antagonize the expression of H2 receptors in mast cells and reduce the release of certain proteins in the body and inflammation.
Pepcid and inflammation in the body
Pepcid can also
Additionally, it reduces the expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL and IL-6, which are also responsible for the release of cytokines — molecules that allow communication between cells. Thereby, Pepcid may improve COVID-19 symptoms by reducing histamine-induced cytokine release and inflammation.
Common symptoms include:
- shortness of breath
- anosmia, or the loss of ability to smell
- myalgia, or muscle aches
Severe symptoms such as chest pain, difficulty breathing, and confusion might require hospitalization.
Studies on taking Pepcid for COVID-19
Several studies report that famotidine — the generic term for Pepcid — can have a beneficial role in managing COVID-19 symptoms.
Studies on hospitalized people
Studies on non-hospitalized people
A 2022 study indicates that taking 80 mg of oral famotidine three times per day can reduce COVID-19 symptoms in people with mild or moderate disease. It is important to remember, however, that 80 mg three times per day is six times higher than the max daily dose of 40 mg. A person should always consult their doctor before beginning a high dose regimen.
Further studies showing no or minimal benefit
Not all studies on famotidine have shown benefits in reducing COVID-19 symptoms. A
The use of famotidine for COVID-19 is not advisable until further research is available.
Pepcid, which has the generic name famotidine,
- reduce the secretion of stomach acids in GERD and peptic ulcers
- treat and prevent heartburn due to gastroesophageal reflux
- treat frequent hives — an off-label use
- prevent stress ulcers in critically ill people
It is important that people consult a doctor before considering taking famotidine. This will help ensure the correct dosage and method of administration.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized famotidine for the treatment of gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers, and GERD in both children and adults. This medication is available over the counter and by prescription.
People can take famotidine in several forms:
- oral suspension
- IV solution
It is important that people consult a doctor before taking famotidine so that they understand the correct dose and method of administration for them.
The FDA has authorized a few antiviral medications and monoclonal antibodies for people who are more vulnerable to developing severe disease.
Antiviral medications help target different parts of the virus and inhibit its replication, while monoclonal antibodies help the immune system respond more effectively to the virus.
A few of the available treatment options
- Nirmatrelvir with ritonavir (Paxlovid): People can take this combination of antiviral medications orally at home. People must take it within 5 days of symptom onset.
- Remdesivir (Veklury): Healthcare professionals can administer this antiviral medication through IV infusions at a healthcare facility for 3 consecutive days within 7 days of symptom onset.
- Molnupiravir (Lagevrio): This is an antiviral medication a person can take orally at home within 5 days of symptom onset.
How to relieve symptoms of COVID-19
Approaches that can help relieve symptoms of COVID-19 include:
- isolating after close contact with someone who has COVID-19
- wearing well-fitting masks in public places
- covering the nose and mouth while coughing and sneezing
- washing the hands with soap and water after coughing or sneezing, before eating or preparing food, and after using the washroom
- using alcohol-based sanitizers if soap and water are not available
- cleaning and disinfecting high touch surfaces regularly
- improving ventilation at home
COVID-19 has led to millions of infections and deaths throughout the world. Many clinical trials are still underway with the goal of developing effective vaccines and antiviral drugs. Health experts have repurposed several drugs to treat COVID-19.
Famotidine is one such drug and originally helped treat gastrointestinal disorders. Several studies indicate that it can help relieve COVID-19 symptoms in people with mild and moderate cases of the disease.
It does so by reducing histamine-related cytokine releases and inflammation. However, it is important that people consult their doctors before taking famotidine and that they follow preventive steps to reduce the spread of COVID-19.