All you need to know about watercress
An ancient green said to have been a staple in the diet of Roman soldiers, watercress is a part of the cruciferous (also known as brassica) family of vegetables along with kale, broccoli, arugula, and Brussels sprouts.
In fact, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, used watercress to treat his patients. It was widely available until the 19th century and watercress sandwiches were a staple of the working class diet in England.
As more varieties of salad leaves were cultivated over the next 100 years, watercress became known as a poor man's food and was eventually shoved off our plates. Its newfound popularity is partly due to its high ANDI score (Aggregate Nutrient Density Index). The ANDI score measures vitamin, mineral, and phytonutrient content in relation to caloric content.
To earn high rank, a food must provide a high amount of nutrients for a small amount of calories. Watercress received the highest rank possible. If you are looking for food to eat to improve your health and shrink your waistline, look no further than watercress.
This article provides a nutritional breakdown of watercress and an in-depth look at its possible health benefits; it also gives ideas to help incorporate more watercress into your diet, and any potential health risks of consuming watercress.
Here are some key points about watercress. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
- Watercress was fed to the Roman army.
- One cup of watercress contains more than 100 percent of the daily recommended amount of vitamin K.
- A chemical in watercress may help protect against the negative effects of cancer treatment.
- The calcium, magnesium, and potassium in watercress may help bring down blood pressure.
Nutritional breakdown of watercress
An ancient green said to have been a staple in the diet of Roman soldiers' diets.
Watercress, along with beetroot and other leafy greens, contain a very high level of dietary nitrate.
High intakes of dietary nitrate have been shown to lower blood pressure, reduce the amount of oxygen needed during exercise, and enhance athletic performance. Moderate intakes do not appear to have the same effects.
According to the USDA National Nutrient Database, two cups of fresh watercress (about 68 grams) contains only 7 calories.
Two cups of watercress also provide:
- 1.6 grams of protein
- 0.1 grams of fat
- 0.9 grams of carbohydrate (including 0.3 grams of fiber and 0.1 grams of sugar)
Consuming 2 cups of watercress will meet the following level of daily requirements:
- 212 percent of vitamin K
- 48 percent of vitamin C
- 44 percent of vitamin A
- 8 percent of calcium
- 8 percent of manganese
- 6 percent of potassium
Plus, 4 percent of vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, magnesium, and phosphorus.
Possible health benefits of consuming watercress
Consuming fruits and vegetables of all kinds is associated with a reduced risk of a number of adverse health conditions. Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant foods, like watercress, decreases the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and overall mortality while promoting a healthy complexion, increased energy, and overall lower weight.
Cancer prevention and treatment
Studies have consistently shown that a compound in cruciferous vegetables known as 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) has protective effects against cancer, but a recent study shows there is also hope for using it as a shield to protect healthy tissues during cancer treatment.
In a study conducted at Georgetown University, rats were given a lethal dose of radiation. Some were left untreated, and others were treated with a daily injection of DIM for 2 weeks. All the untreated rats died, but over 50 percent of those receiving the DIM remained alive at the 30-day mark.
The same researchers did the experiment on mice and found similar results. They were able to determine that the DIM-treated mice had higher counts or red and white blood cells and blood platelets, which radiation therapy often diminishes.
Eating high amounts of cruciferous vegetables has also been associated with a lower risk of lung and colon cancer. Studies have suggested that the sulfur-containing compounds (namely sulforaphane) that give cruciferous vegetables their bitter bite are also what give them their cancer-fighting power.
Sulforaphane is now being studied for its ability to delay or impede cancer with early promising results associated with melanoma, esophageal, prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancers. Researchers have found that sulforaphane can inhibit the enzyme histone deacetylase (HDAC), known to be involved in the progression of cancer cells. The ability to stop HDAC enzymes could make sulforaphane-containing foods a potentially powerful part of cancer treatment in the future.
Watercress also contains high amounts of chlorophyll, which may be effective at blocking the carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic amines generated when grilling foods at a high temperature.
Lowering blood pressure
People who consume diets that are low in the minerals calcium, magnesium, and potassium are more likely to have high blood pressure. These minerals are thought to bring blood pressure down by releasing sodium out of the body and helping arteries dilate.
It is important to note that taking these minerals in supplement form will not provide the same health benefits as when they are consumed in food. Watercress contains all three of these healthy minerals and can help improve intake.
According to a 2013 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, foods containing dietary nitrates like watercress have been shown to have multiple vascular benefits, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction.
In general, a diet rich in all fruits and vegetables has been shown to help maintain healthy blood pressure.
Maintaining healthy bones
Low intakes of vitamin K are associated with a higher risk for bone fracture. Adequate vitamin K consumption improves bone health by acting as a modifier of bone matrix proteins, improving calcium absorption, and reducing urinary excretion of calcium.
Eating just one cup of watercress would meet your daily need for vitamin K.
Watercress contains the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid, which has been shown to lower glucose levels, increase insulin sensitivity, and prevent oxidative stress-induced changes in patients with diabetes.
Studies on alpha-lipoic acid have also shown decreases in peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in diabetics.
Of note, most studies have used intravenous alpha-lipoic acid, there is uncertainty whether oral supplementation would elicit the same benefits.
How to incorporate more watercress into your diet
Try making watercress soup or mix watercress into soup near the end of cooking.
Watercress is most commonly consumed fresh in salads but can also be incorporated into pastas, casseroles, and sauces just like any other green.
Watercress will sauté faster than tougher greens like kale and collard greens because of its tenderness and lends a mild, slightly peppery taste to any dish.
Choose watercress with deep green crisp leaves and no signs of wilting. Store in the refrigerator and use within a few days of purchase.
- Throw a small handful of watercress and blend into your favorite fruit juice or smoothie.
- Add watercress to your next omelet or egg scramble.
- Make a pesto using watercress.
- Chop watercress and add it to pasta sauce.
- Sauté watercress in a small amount of extra-virgin olive oil and season with ground black pepper and freshly grated Parmesan cheese. Eat as a side dish or top your baked potato.
- Add watercress to your wrap, sandwich, or flatbread.
- Mix watercress into soup near the end of cooking.
Potential health risks of consuming watercress
For individuals taking blood-thinners such as Coumadin (warfarin) it is important not to suddenly begin eating more or fewer foods containing vitamin K, which plays an important role in blood clotting.
If improperly stored, nitrate-containing vegetable juice may accumulate bacteria that convert nitrate to nitrite and contaminate the juice. High levels of nitrite can be potentially harmful if consumed.
Consult with your doctor before starting a high-nitrate diet if you have cardiovascular disease or associated risk factors. A high-nitrate diet may interact with certain medications such as organic nitrate (nitroglycerine) or nitrite drugs used for angina, sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and vardenafil.
According to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, very high intakes of cruciferous vegetables have been found to cause a decrease in thyroid hormone function in animals. There has been one reported case of an elderly woman developing severe hypothyroidism after eating an estimated 1 to 1.5 kilograms per day of raw bok choy for several months.
It is the total diet or overall eating pattern that is most important in disease prevention and achieving good health. It is better to eat a diet with a variety than to concentrate on individual foods as the key to good health.