Cannabidiol (CBD) oil comes from the Cannabis plant and has become a popular alternative therapy for a range of conditions over the past few years. People report using CBD oil to help reduce pain, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
Due to the prohibition of cannabis and associated research restrictions, there are limited evidence from human studies to support the benefits of CBD oil. However, with the legalization of cannabis in some regions around the globe, research in this area is gaining momentum.
CBD is just one of many different molecules unique to the Cannabis plant. CBD oil generally contains low levels of the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the compound that produces the ‘high.’
People report using CBD oil for a variety of medical conditions without experiencing the intoxicating effects of THC. Generally, most people tolerate CBD is well and experience minimal serious side effects.
Unlike THC, CBD does not bind readily to
Endocannabinoids are signaling molecules that help regulate various processes, such as pain, memory, mood, immunity, and stress.
CBD does, however, interact with other receptors, such as serotonin and opioid receptors. It might also boost levels of naturally occurring endocannabinoids, which may explain its seemingly broad range of uses.
Is CBD legal?The 2018 Farm Bill removed hemp from the legal definition of marijuana in the Controlled Substances Act. This made some hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0.3 percent THC federally legal. However, CBD products containing more than 0.3 percent THC still fall under the legal definition of marijuana, making them federally illegal but legal under some state laws. Be sure to check state laws, especially when traveling. Also, keep in mind that the FDA has not approved nonprescription CBD products, and some products may be inaccurately labeled.
Keep reading to learn about some of the possible benefits of using CBD oil.
The first CBD-based medication that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved was Epidiolex. Doctors prescribe Epidiolex to those who experience seizures due to Lennox-Gastrault or Dravet syndrome, which are rare types of epilepsy.
Epidiolex underwent rigorous human studies before the FDA approved it as a treatment for these two conditions.
According to an article in
A review of completed and ongoing clinical trials indicated that adding CBD to common antiepileptic drugs may be appropriate in treatment-resistant epilepsy in infants, children, and teenagers.
Researchers have investigated the pain-relieving effects of CBD. A small
In this small study, participants with peripheral noncancer neuropathic pain received either 250 milligrams (mg) of CBD total dissolved in 3 oz of oil) or a placebo.
After 4 weeks, the researchers noted a statistically significant reduction in intense pain, sharp pain, cold and itchy sensations in those using CBD oil. Participants did not report any side effects.
Although the results of this small trial are positive, it involved just 29 participants, so researchers need to conduct more investigations to confirm the results.
However, the researchers do not know which of the two compounds had the most significant effect. Also, the follow-up period for this study was 15 weeks. Scientists must carry out further research to confirm whether long-term pain control is possible.
This spray that contained both THC and CBD may also have anti-inflammatory properties. An
These studies show the potential effectiveness of CBD on pain and inflammation.
Many animal studies on the effects of CBD on mood disorders showed promising results. An earlier article in
The participants took a CBD preparation before a public-speaking event. They reported feeling less anxiety and discomfort. Researchers suggest that CBD may help relieve anxiety associated with the anticipation of a fearful event.
The participants also had lower negative self-evaluation during public speaking. Researchers suggest that serotonin receptors may play a role in the effects of CBD on anxiety.
Human studies on the effectiveness of CBD on depression are currently lacking. It is necessary to carry out further research before using it for this purpose.
Some experts suggest that CBD oil can help people with addiction by reducing activation of the amygdala, a brain area involved in addiction.
Cravings for drugs generally occur by exposure to a particular cue. So, reducing the craving during cues can help people abstain from heroin.
A study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry explored CBD’s effect on cue-inducing craving and anxiety in people with heroin use disorder. The researchers demonstrated that compared with placebo, those who took CBD had lower cravings and anxiety. These results are promising and require further investigation.
In some studies, certain cannabinoids demonstrate anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, anti-aging, and anticancer properties. Some experts suggest that these effects occur when the drug interacts with the endocannabinoid system found on the skin.
Some skin conditions that may improve with CBD treatment include:
An article in
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
- Parkinson’s disease
- Huntington’s disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- multiple sclerosis (MS)
Researchers suggest that the neuroprotective effects occur from the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of CBD.
In some countries, doctors can prescribe
An article in the
CBD oil is not the only form of CBD that people use for medicinal purposes. Different types of CBD include:
- creams & salves
- high-CBD flower for inhalation
- edibles (such as gummies)
The effect that a person may get from using CBD may differ according to whether they are inhaling it or taking it orally. Side effects of CBD may also vary depending on the form consumed.
People use CBD oil and other CBD-based products for different reasons, including reducing pain, controlling anxiety, and managing seizures.
Although studies report few side effects with CBD use, its effectiveness for various medical conditions requires further research.
Other people use CBD oil for medical conditions that researchers have not rigorously studied yet. People who use CBD oil should speak with a doctor to ensure the drug is safe and whether CBD is more effective than other conventional medications.