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"The interaction between nicotine exposure and phonology suggests a significant gene-by-environment interaction, making children with an underlying phonological deficit particularly vulnerable."
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"Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Impaired Reading Performance"
Kelly Cho, PhD, Jan C. Frijters, PhD, Heping Zhang, PhD, Laura L. Miller, MSc, Jeffrey R. Gruen, MD
The Journal of Pediatrics, November 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.09.041
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Kearney, Christine. "Smoking During Pregnancy May Lower Your Child's Reading Scores." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 21 Nov. 2012. Web.
18 Apr. 2014. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/253100>
Kearney, C. (2012, November 21). "Smoking During Pregnancy May Lower Your Child's Reading Scores." Medical News Today. Retrieved from
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