Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. With this form of the condition, the body does not respond as expected to the hormone insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to rise, which can damage the body and result in the development of additional chronic conditions, or comorbidities.
According to a
In this article, we will explore some of the comorbidities of T2DM, how a person can prevent T2DM or comorbidities from developing, and how to manage the condition.
Obesity is a
There is a close association between obesity and T2DM. Some evidence notes that 90% of adults with T2DM have overweight or obesity.
Obesity is a modifiable risk factor, meaning a person can manage and prevent this condition. A nutritious diet and regular exercise can help reduce the risk of obesity in most people.
Specifically, dyslipidemia in T2DM typically presents with:
- increased plasma triglycerides
- low HDL
- high LDL
According to a 2021 cross-sectional study, just over 32% of individuals with T2DM had high cholesterol levels, while 57.7% of patients had high LDL levels. Dyslipidemia is also one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases in people with T2DM.
Insulin resistance can cause type 2 diabetes, and the resulting high blood sugars may damage the blood vessels. Due to this, resistance in the arteries
According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2 in 3 people with diabetes will either report having raised blood pressure or will be taking medication to lower their blood pressure. Similarly, a 2019 cohort study found that
Because T2DM can strain the blood vessels and nerves that control the heart, it
Approximately 30% of people with T2DM have heart disease. A person with T2DM is
According to the
Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes, are also the main cause of death in people with diabetes.
The primary role of the kidneys is to filter waste products and extra water out of the body. They also aid in blood pressure regulation and release hormones.
In T2DM, high blood sugar causes
According to the CDC, people with diabetes are
Sleep disturbance affects between
Common sleep disorders that a person with T2DM may experience can include:
Restless leg syndrome: This is where a person may experience uncomfortable sensations in the leg that results in an irresistible urge to move them. Sleep apnea: This condition causes someone’s breathing to often stop and restart during asleep. Insomnia: This disorder occurs when a person has trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or getting a good quality of sleep.
There is an association between T2DM and the chance of developing some cancer types, including:
Researchers believe a combination of factors may increase the risk of cancer development in people with T2DM, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and overstimulated cell growth.
There are some things a person with T2DM can do to try and prevent comorbidities and manage their condition. Someone who has prediabetes could
- joining a diabetes prevention program, which may be able to reduce their risk of developing T2DM by 58% over 3 years
- taking part in more physical activity
- following a nutritious diet with a focus on whole grains, nuts, legumes, vegetables, and fruits
- stopping smoking
- losing weight
A person with T2DM should also adhere to treatment plans they discuss with their medical professional to ensure their condition is well-managed. For example, a doctor may prescribe metformin for someone with T2DM to help control their blood sugar.
The ADA has a Living with Type 2 Diabetes Program that can help people with T2DM learn more about their condition and how to manage it.
T2DM is a form of diabetes that results from the body not responding typically to insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to rise, which can affect the rest of the body. This can result in the development of another chronic condition. When a person has two or more chronic conditions, a doctor may refer to these conditions as comorbid.
A person with T2DM is more likely to develop comorbidities such as heart disease, sleep disorders, cancer, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Someone with T2DM can reduce their likelihood of developing comorbidities through various methods, including dietary changes, partaking in more physical activity, following their treatment plan, and managing their weight.